Definitions of Citizenship
& Immigration Canada Terms
Find definitions of terms
used frequently by Citizenship & Immigration Canada. This
information comes from The Monitor, a magazine published
by Citizenship & Immigration Canada.
Business immigrants include
three classes of immigrants--investors, entrepreneurs and self-employed
people. Business immigrants become permanent residents on the basis
of their ability to become economically established in Canada. The
spouse and children of the business immigrant are also included
in this category.
A person who, by reason of
a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion,
nationality, membership in a particular social group or political
opinion, is (a) outside each of their countries of nationality
and is unable, or by reason of that fear, unwilling to avail themselves
of the protection of each of those countries; or (b) not having
a country of nationality, is outside the country of their former
habitual residence and is unable, or by reason of that fear, unwilling
to return to that country.
The spouse, common-law partner
or conjugal partner and children of a landed immigrant. A dependent
child is either a biological child or an adopted child. Children
can be dependent if they meet one of the following conditions:
- they are under age 22 and unmarried or not in a common-law relationship;
- they have been full-time students since before age 22, attend
a post-secondary educational institution and have been substantially
dependent on the financial support of a parent since before age
22 and, if married or a common-law partner, since becoming a spouse
or a common-law partner; or
- they are age 22 or over and have been substantially dependent
on the financial support of a parent since before age 22 because
of a physical or mental condition.
Before June 28, 2002,
dependants were defined as the spouse of a landed immigrant and
the children of that immigrant who were unmarried and under 19 years
of age; or continuously enrolled as full-time students in an educational
institution and financially supported by their parents since reaching
age 19 (or if married before age 19, from the date of their marriage);
or due to a medical condition, unable to support themselves and
are dependent on their parents for financial support.
People selected for their
skills and ability to contribute to Canada's economy, including
skilled workers, business people and provincial nominees.
An immigrant who has been
admitted to Canada by demonstrating that they:
- have managed and controlled a percentage of equity in a qualifying
business for at least two years in the period beginning five years
before they apply; and
- have a legally obtained net worth of at least $300,000 Canadian.
A class of immigrants to
Canada made up of close relatives of a sponsor in Canada, including
a spouse, common-law partner or conjugal partner; dependent children;
parents and grandparents; children under age 18 whom the sponsor
intends to adopt in Canada; children of whom the sponsor is the
guardian; brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces and grandchildren who
are orphans under age 18; and any other relative, if the sponsor
has no relative as described above, either abroad or in Canada.
Based on the initial entry
method, the number of people identified as entering the CIC system
(and presumably the country) for the first time. CIC commonly measures
foreign student flows and foreign worker flows. Flows are calculated
based on the earliest effective date of any valid permit issued
to a foreign student or a foreign worker. The Monitor's
quarterly figures measure foreign student flows and foreign worker
flows as opposed to stocks (see stock definition for more details).
A temporary resident who
has been approved by an immigration officer to study in Canada.
The study permit identifies the level of study and the length of
time the individual may study in Canada. Students do not need a
study permit for courses of six months or less if they will finish
the course within the period of stay authorized upon entry, which
is usually six months. Before June 28, 2002, students did not
need a study permit for English and French as a second language
courses of three months or less. Every foreign student must have
a student authorization, but may also have been issued other types
of permits or authorizations.
A foreign national who has
been authorized to enter and remain in Canada, on a temporary basis,
as a worker. This category excludes foreign students and people
who have been issued employment authorizations for humanitarian
reasons. Every foreign worker must have an employment authorization,
but may also have other types of permits or authorizations.
People who are selected abroad
for resettlement to Canada as Convention refugees under the
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or as members of the
Humanitarian-protected Persons Abroad Classes, and who receive resettlement
assistance from the federal government.
An immigrant who has been
admitted to Canada because they:
- have business experience as defined in the Regulations;
- have a legally obtained net worth of at least $800,000 Canadian;
- have invested $400,000 Canadian before receiving a visa.
The Canadian government allocates
the investment to participating provinces and territories, which
guarantee the investment and use it to develop their economies and
create jobs. The investment is repaid, without interest, after five
A joint undertaking by a
sponsoring group and CIC to sponsor refugees requiring special assistance
and whose admissibility depends upon the additional support of a
sponsor. In order to resettle successfully, these refugees may require
more than a 12-month sponsorship. Under the JAS Program, CIC provides
financial assistance to cover the cost of food, shelter, clothing
and essential household goods. The sponsor's role is to provide
orientation, significant settlement assistance and emotional support.
Refugees sponsored under the JAS program are identified as having
special needs that will likely result in a longer or more difficult
period of integration.
The permission given to a
person to live in Canada as a permanent resident. An immigrant who
has been "landed" is a permanent resident.
Level of Skill
Skill levels for foreign
worker occupations are derived from the National Occupational Classification
(NOC) system. They are:
||Skilled and Technical
||Intermediate and Clerical
||Elemental and Labour
||Not Stated (This category is the result of special programs
and of foreign workers who were able to enter Canada initially
with no requirement for a foreign worker permit)
Level of Study
There are five levels of
study shown for the foreign student population in Canada. They are:
- University - Foreign students pursuing undergraduate,
postgraduate (master's and doctoral) and other studies at university
institutions in Canada.
- Trade - Foreign students pursuing education
in a vocational trade at non-university educational institutions
in Canada (such as technical and vocational institutions, CEGEP,
- Other Post-Secondary - Foreign students pursuing
a post-secondary level of study, not specifically university or
trade level. This category may include language institutions,
private institutions and university qualifying programs.
- Secondary or Less - Foreign students attending
primary or secondary educational institutions in Canada.
- Other - Foreign students who could not be
classified at any of the above levels of study.
A temporary resident of Canada
who has successfully completed the equivalent of Canadian secondary
school; has six months of full-time training in a field or occupation
related to that for which they are seeking a work permit; is able
to speak, read and understand English or French at a level sufficient
to communicate effectively in an unsupervised situation; and signs
an employment contract with the future employer.
Participants in this program
may apply for permanent resident status in Canada after completing
two years of live-in caregiving employment within three years of
arrival in Canada.
This category includes people
classified as Post-Determination Refugee Claimants or members of
the Deferred Removal Order Class.
for Protected Persons in Canada
People who have been determined
to be Protected Persons by the Immigration and Refugee Board in
Canada or through the Pre-Removal Risk Assessment, and who have
been granted permanent residence as a result.
An immigrant selected by
the provinces and territories for specific skills that will contribute
to the local economy. The Regulations establish a provincial nominee
class, allowing provinces and territories that have agreements with
CIC to nominate a certain number of workers. A nominee must meet
federal admissibility requirements, such as those related to health
The person who best meets
the definition for one or more of the types of business immigrants
and in whose name the application for immigration is made.
The person who is likely
to earn the most points in the self-assessment and in whose name
the immigration application is made.
Refugees selected abroad
for resettlement to Canada who receive resettlement assistance from
A person who has arrived
in Canada and who seeks the protection of Canada. If such a person
receives a final determination that he or she has been determined
to be a Protected Person, he or she may then apply for permanent
An immigrant who has (a) shown
that they can and intend to create their own employment in Canada
and (b) that they can contribute significantly either to the
Canadian economy as farmers or to the cultural or athletic life
Immigrants selected for their
skills, which will ensure their success in a fast-changing labour
market and benefit the Canadian economy. The Regulations stress
education, English or French language abilities, and work experience
involving certain skills, rather than specific occupations.
Stock statistics measure
the number of people present in the CIC system on a specific date
in each year of observation. CIC commonly measures foreign student
stocks and foreign worker stocks. For a foreign student or a foreign
worker to be counted as present in the stock, he or she must have
a valid student or work authorization on that date. Any foreign
student or foreign worker who has been granted landed status on
or before the observation date is excluded from the stock count
from that date forward.
More Information About Studying in Canada
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